Portugal during World War II | Wikipedia audio article

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00:00:43 1 Portugal and the war in Europe
00:00:53 1.1 Overview
00:04:37 1.2 Azores
00:09:17 1.3 Wolfram
00:11:44 1.4 Portugal’s role in keeping Spain neutral
00:14:05 1.5 Haven for refugees
00:18:06 1.6 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side
00:19:01 2 Portugal and the Pacific War
00:19:11 2.1 Macau
00:20:42 2.2 East Timor
00:21:15 2.3 Goa
00:22:01 3 Military operations that threatened Portuguese neutrality
00:22:13 3.1 By the Axis
00:22:22 3.1.1 Operation Felix
00:22:46 3.1.2 Führer Directive No. 18
00:23:24 3.1.3 Operation Isabella
00:23:51 3.2 By the Allies
00:24:00 3.2.1 Operation Alacrity
00:25:02 3.2.2 War Plan Gray
00:25:44 4 Espionage
00:28:18 5 Aftermath
00:30:31 6 See also

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Upon the start of World War II in 1939, the Portuguese Government announced on 1 September that the 600-year-old Anglo-Portuguese Alliance remained intact, but that since the British did not seek Portuguese assistance, Portugal was free to remain neutral in the war and would do so. In an aide-mémoire of 5 September 1939, the British Government confirmed the understanding. As Hitler’s occupation swept across Europe, neutral Portugal became one of the Continent’s last escape routes. Portugal managed to remain neutral throughout the war despite extraordinary pressures from both sides, notably over the strategically located Azores islands and over the wolfram (tungsten) trade.


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